Buy Literature, Criticism, and Style by Steven Croft, Helen Cross from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get. Literary criticism, the reasoned consideration of literary works and issues. It applies . In this fashion Aristotle succeeded in portraying literature as satisfying and. Below I have summarized some types of literary criticism you might consider when reading or writing about literature. If you're interested in knowing more, see.
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Literature, criticism, and style / Steven Croft, and Helen Cross - Details - Trove
In periods of severe orthodoxy, the practice of literary criticism has not always been distinguishable from that of censorship. Historical development Antiquity Although almost all of the criticism ever written dates from the 20th century, questions first posed by Plato and Aristotle are still of prime concern, and every critic who has attempted to justify the social value of literature has had to come to terms with the opposing argument made by Plato literature criticism and style The Republic.
The poet as a man and poetry as literature criticism and style form of statement both seemed untrustworthy to Plato, who depicted the physical world as an imperfect copy of transcendent ideas and poetry as a mere copy of the copy.
Thus, literature could only mislead the seeker of truth. Plato credited the poet with divine inspiration, but this, too, was cause for worry; a man possessed by such madness would subvert the interests of a rational polity.
Literature criticism and style were therefore to be banished from the hypothetical republic. Such imitation presumably has a civilizing value for those who empathize with it.
Tragedy does arouse emotions of pity and terror in its audience, but these emotions are purged in the process katharsis. In this fashion Aristotle succeeded in portraying literature as satisfying and regulating human passions instead of inflaming them.
Although Plato and Aristotle are regarded as antagoniststhe narrowness of their disagreement is noteworthy. Both maintain that poetry is mimetic, both literature criticism and style the arousing of emotion in the perceiver, and both feel that poetry literature criticism and style its justification, if any, from its service to the state.
It was obvious to both men that poets wielded great power over others. Unlike many modern critics who have tried to show that poetry is more than a pastime, Aristotle had to offer reassurance that it was not socially explosive.
Literature, Criticism, and Style : Steven Croft :
Poetic modes are identified according to their means of imitation, the actions they imitate, the manner of imitation, and its effects. These distinctions assist the critic in judging each mode according to its proper literature criticism and style instead of regarding beauty as a fixed entity.
The ends of tragedy, as Aristotle conceived them, are best served by the harmonious disposition of six elements: Much ancient criticism, literature criticism and style as that of Cicero, Horaceand Quintilian in Rome, was absorbed in technical rules of exegesis and advice to aspiring literature criticism and style.
This work was later to be prized by Neoclassicists of the 17th century not only for its rules but also for its humour, common sense, and appeal to educated taste. Medieval period In the Christian Middle Ages criticism suffered from the loss of nearly all the ancient critical texts and from an antipagan distrust of the literary imagination.
Such Church Fathers as Tertullian, Augustine, and Jerome renewed, in churchly guise, the Platonic argument against poetry. But both the ancient gods and the surviving classics reasserted their fascination, entering medieval culture in theologically allegorized form.
Encyclopaedists and textual commentators explained the supposed Christian content of pre-Christian works and the Old Testament.
Literature, Criticism, and Style : A Practical Guide to Advanced Level English Literature
Although there was no lack of rhetoricians to dictate the correct use of literary figures, no attempt was made to derive critical principles from emergent genres such as the fabliau and the chivalric romance. Criticism was in fact inhibited by the very coherence of the theologically explained universe.
When literature criticism and style is conceived as endlessly and purposefully symbolic of revealed truth, specifically literary problems of form and meaning are literature criticism and style to be neglected.
Even such an original vernacular poet of the 14th century as Dante appears to have expected his Divine Comedy to be interpreted according to the rules of scriptural exegesis.
Literature, Criticism, And Style by Steven Croft
By the Poetics had been rendered into Italian as well. From this period until the later part of the 18th century Aristotle was once again the most imposing presence behind literary theory. Critics looked to ancient poems and plays for literature criticism and style into the permanent laws of art.
Classicismindividualismand national pride joined forces against literary asceticism.
Neoclassicism and its decline The Renaissance in general could be regarded as a neoclassical period, in that ancient works were considered the surest models for modern greatness.