Ozone depletion is a major environmental problem because it increases the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches Earth's surface, which increases the rate of skin cancer, eye cataracts, and genetic and immune system damage. Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and Its Interactions with The Connection between Ozone Layer Depletion and UVB Radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halogenated ozone depleting substances (ODS) are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletion. The total amount of effective halogens (chlorine and bromine) in the stratosphere can be calculated and are known as the equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC).Ozone layer · Tropospheric ozone depletion · Photodissociation · Halocarbon.
|Published:||23 February 2014|
|PDF File Size:||21.4 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||13.97 Mb|
The net or overall reaction is that of atomic oxygen with ozone, forming two oxygen molecules. The ozone depletion can be considered to begin with either ClO or Cl. Cl then reacts with and thereby destroys ozone and reforms ClO.
The cycle ozone depletion begins again with another reaction of ClO with O.
Because Cl or ClO is reformed each time an ozone molecule is destroyed, ozone depletion is considered a catalyst for ozone destruction.
Atomic oxygen O is formed when ultraviolet sunlight reacts with ozone and oxygen molecules. Cycle 1 is most important in the stratosphere at tropical and middle latitudes, where ultraviolet sunlight is most intense.
Significant destruction of ozone occurs in polar regions because ClO abundances reach large values. ozone depletion
The net reaction ozone depletion both cases is two ozone molecules forming three oxygen molecules. Ozone destruction Cycles 2 and 3 are catalytic, as illustrated for Cycle 1, ozone depletion chlorine and bromine gases react and are reformed in each cycle.
Health and Environmental Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
In reality, the American SST program was canceled, and only a small number of French-British Concordes and Soviet Tus went into service, so that the ozone depletion of SSTs on the ozone layer were found to be negligible for the number of aircraft in operation. Inhowever, American chemists Mario Molina and F.
Sherwood Rowland of the University of California at Irvine recognized that human-produced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs — ozone depletion containing only carbonfluorineand chlorine atoms—could be a major source of chlorine in ozone depletion stratosphere.
They also noted that chlorine could destroy extensive amounts of ozone after it was liberated from CFCs by UV radiation. Free chlorine atoms and chlorine-containing gases, such as chlorine monoxide ClOcould then break ozone molecules apart by stripping away one of the three oxygen atoms.
Ozone depletion | Facts, Effects, & Solutions |
Later research revealed that bromine and ozone depletion bromine-containing ozone depletion, such as bromine monoxide BrOwere even more effective at destroying ozone than were chlorine and its reactive compounds. Subsequent laboratory measurements, atmospheric measurements, and atmospheric-modeling studies soon substantiated the importance of their findings.
Human activities have had a significant effect on the global concentration and distribution of stratospheric ozone since before the s. UVB radiation has been found to cause damage to early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians, and other marine animals.
Ozone Layer Protection | US EPA
The most severe effects are decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development. Small increases in UVB exposure could result in population reductions for small marine ozone depletion with implications for the whole marine food chain.
Global warming is caused primarily by putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and ozone depletion gas are burned to generate electricity or to run our cars. Carbon dioxide spreads around the planet like a blanket, and is one of the main gases responsible for the absorption of infrared radiation felt as heatwhich comprises the bulk of solar energy.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Ozone depletion occurs when chlorofluorocarbons CFCs and halons—gases formerly found in aerosol spray cans and refrigerants—are released into the atmosphere see details below.
Ozone sits in the upper atmosphere and absorbs ultraviolet radiaton, another type of solar energy that's harmful to ozone depletion, animals and plants.
CFCs and halons cause ozone depletion reactions that break down ozone molecules, reducing ozone's ultraviolet radiation-absorbing capacity.