The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is a widely used measure of social anxiety. However, no study has examined the psychometric. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale is a self-rated questionnaire designed to evaluate the impact of social phobia on various areas of your life. This measure assesses the way that social phobia plays a role in your life across a variety of situations. Read each situation carefully and answer two questions.


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Considering Social Anxiety Disorder SADthe number of evaluation instruments has grown considerably over the last decade.

Social Anxiety Test

According to a review study [ 3 ] there are approximately 25 instruments for evaluating the disorder, with the majority having been studied from the psychometric point of view and having shown good indicators.

It was proposed as a clinician-administered scale consisting of 24 items, on two subscales, which evaluate social anxiety scale liebowitz symptoms of fear and the avoidance of social situations experienced by the individual in the previous week.


Specifically regarding the discriminant validity, ten studies were found [ 6 — 15 ] which indicated that SAD participants presented significantly higher scores than participants without SAD or with other anxiety disorders, regarding both subscales and the overall score.

The cutoff points present many differences according to the culture of the sample, for example, the studies conduced in the USA [ 1113 ] both used a cutoff score of 30 points. However, social anxiety scale liebowitz Europe, the cutoff scores were different in each country, a Turkish study suggested that the score should be higher than 50 [ 14 ], while a Spanish study suggested a score between Subsequent studies [ 1617 ], consisting of large and diverse samples and using refined methodology, have considered the self-report version valid and reliable, since the psychometric properties presented by the SR social anxiety scale liebowitz were as satisfactory as the clinician-administered format, with the advantage of its application being easier and faster [ 12 ].

Liebowitz Assessment - Overcoming Social Anxiety and Shyness

Currently, the LSAS is the instrument most used worldwide for the evaluation of signs and symptoms of SAD, especially in clinical studies [ 1819 ]. However, it should be noted that the LSAS-SR is an instrument that evaluates only two of the diagnostic criteria of SAD, the fear social anxiety scale liebowitz avoidance associated with the disorder, without including its other diagnostic criteria, e.

To answer these questions, the aim of this study was to examine the discriminant validity and find the LSAS-SR cutoffs for the Social anxiety scale liebowitz population, with a clinical sample of SAD cases, non-cases and subclinical cases.


The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Anxiety Disord See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Overall, the original LSAS subscales showed excellent internal consistency and temporal stability. Similar to previous reports, fear and avoidance subscales were so highly social anxiety scale liebowitz that they yielded redundant information.

Liebowitz social anxiety scale

Confirmatory factor analyses for three previously proposed models failed to demonstrate an excellent fit to our data. However, a four-factor model showed minimally acceptable fit.


Exploratory factor analyses social anxiety scale liebowitz warranted to determine whether a better factor structure exists social anxiety scale liebowitz African Americans. The LSAS comprises 24 social situations that are each rated for level of fear and avoidance.

The original scale was developed as a clinician administered measure, although a self-report version has also been validated Fresco et al. The LSAS differs from most other social anxiety measures in that it assesses anxiety and avoidance in specific social situations e.

Liebowitz social anxiety scale - Wikipedia

In social anxiety disorder SAD patients, the LSAS showed social anxiety scale liebowitz internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and sensitivity to treatment Heimberg et al.

First, a total social anxiety scale liebowitz is created by summing all 48 responses. Second, fear ratings for all situations are summed to create a Fear subscale. Third, avoidance ratings for all situations are summed to create an Avoidance subscale.

Additionally, responses to the 11 social-interaction and 13 performance situations may be summed separately for fear and avoidance, creating four subscales: The original scoring instructions implied two-factors social interaction, performance separately for fear and avoidance.

Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale

Although the measure was designed to provide separate fear and avoidance scores, studies show that these subscales are highly correlated, suggesting significant redundancy between subscales Heimberg social anxiety scale liebowitz al.

Thus, studies have tested the original 2-factor model social interaction, performance examining only fear ratings. Factor analyses have not supported the original 2-factor model and have instead supported a different four-factor structure.

Specifically, Safren and colleagues found a superior factor structure that comprised only fear ratings and dropped five items to create the following subscales: This structure was preferred in a sample of treatment seeking individuals diagnosed with SAD Safren et al.

The 24 items are social anxiety scale liebowitz rated on a Likert Scale from 0 to 3 on fear felt during the situations, and then the same items are rated regarding avoidance of the situation. The clinician administered version of the test has four more subscale scores, which the self-administered test does not have.

These additional four subscales are: Usually, the sum of the total fear and total avoidance scores are used in determining the final score thus, essentially it uses the same numbers as the self-administered test.

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